Modern Indian History: 1937 : Titles of Some Important LeadersUPSC
|Abdul Gaffar Kahn||Frontier Gandhi, Badshah
|Bal Gangadhar Tilak||Lokmanya|
|Chatherine Mary Heilaman||Meera Behn|
|Dada Bhai Nauroji||Grand Old Man|
|Goapal Hari Deshmukh||Lokhitwadi|
|Jatin Mukherjee||Bagha Jatin|
|Lala Lajpat Rai||Sher-i-Punjab|
|Lala Munshi Ram||Swami Shradhanand|
|Lord Ripon||Ripon, the Popular|
|M.K. Gandhi||Mahatma, (Given by R.N.
|Margaret Noble||Sister Nivedita|
|Narendra Nath Dutt||Swami Vivekanand|
|Rabindra Nath Tagore||Gurudeo|
|Raja Ram Mohan Roy||First Modern Man|
|Sarojini Naidu||Bharat Kokila|
|Subhash Chadra Bose||Netaji|
|Vallabhai Patel||Sardar, Iron Man|
Foreign Accounts (Chronologically)
- Herodotu’s Accounts - Greek (454-425 BC) (He is known as father of History).
- Ctesia’s Accounts - Greek (416-398) Clesiar of Ktesias was a physician.
- Periplus of the Erythrean Sea - Greek - By a Greek sailor who made a voyage to the Indian coast about A.d. He left a record of Indian ports, Harbours and merchandise - Erythraean Sea. Description of trade in Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and Red Sea.
- National History - Latin - Pliny - In first century A.D. - He wrote about Indian animals, plants and minerals.
- Georaphy - Greek - By Ptolemy - written in Second Century AD on scientific times - He gave the shape of India (like a kite).
- Geography - By Strabo - Written in Greek.
- Accounts of Cosmas - Indicopleustes - Wrote about Mihirkula.
- Fo-Kwo-Ki (Travels of Fahien) - Fahien.
- Si-yu-ki (Buddhist Records of the Western World) - Hiuen Tsang - He refers to Mihirkula.
- Life of Hiuen Tsang - Hwuili.
Facts about Coinage
- Coins were introduced in India in 500 BC.
- These early coins were known as Punch-marked coins bearing only a variety of symbols.
- Indo-Greeks were first to introduce gold coins-they also initiated the practice of issuing billignual coins-they were also first to issue coins which could be attributed to particular kings with certainly.
- Portrait-coinage was introduced by Indo-Greeks.
- Kushans issued the purest gold coins.
- Kadaphises I (Kushana) issued gold coins which bore the images of Shiva and Nandi bull.
- Satvahanas issued coins in four metals: silver, copper, potin, and lead (the last one being predominant).
- The Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins.
- Gold coins of Md. Ghauri bore the image of goddess Kali / Lakshmi on obverse and the name of the ruler in Nagari script on reverse.
- Md. Bin Tughlaq introduced token currency of brass and copper on the model of Chinese currency CHAO (in paper and silk).
- Akbar’s gold mohur bore the figures of Sita and Ram was called Jallai
- The coins of Harihara I & Bukka I bore the image of Hanuman like the coins of Kadamba dynasty.
- The coins of Krishnadevaraya bore the images of Venkatesh and Balakrishna.
Various Coin Types
Chief copper coin weighing 323 grain introduced by Shershah and continued by Mughals, 40 Dams was equal to 1 rupee
|Jittal||Copper coin of Sultanate period.|
Copper coin weighing 2.25 grain, Popular during the Maurya period.
|Karspana||Early coin type, the most popular one, made of gold, solver, copper and lead.|
|Nishka||Gold ornaments used as medium of exchange.|
|Pana||Silver coin of early period weighing 57.8 grain. Popular during the Mauryas.|
|Rupaka||Silver coin of the Guptas weighin 32 of 36 grain.|
|Rupaya||Silver coin weighin 170 grain introduced by Shershah and continued up till the advent of European powers.|
|Tanka||Standard silver coin of Sultanate period weighin 175 grains and equivalent to 64 jittal. Introduced by Iltutmish .|
|Varaha||Gold coin of Vijana gara rulers weighed 52 grain, and was called pagoda by oreigners particularly Portuguese, Also known as Hun and Panam.|
|Jodhpur||Rao Jodha or Marwar|
|Jaunpur||Firoz Tughlaq (on the site of Jamanpur) named after Jauna Khan (Md. Tughlaq).|
|Hyderabad||Md. Quli, 1590, a new capital of Qutub Shahi kingdom of Golkunda|
|Ahmedabad||Ahmed Shah of Gujarat, on the side ot the old town Asawal|
|Delhi/Dhilika||Tomaras, middle of 11th century, Angapal|
|Firojabad / Kotla shah||Firoz Shah Tughlaq|
|Bikaner||Bika (Son of Bodha)|
|Fatehabad||Firoz Shah Tughlaq|
|Hissar||Firoz Shah Tughlaq|
|Jaipur||Raja Swai Jai Singh|
|Amritsar||Guru Ramdas (3rd Guru)|
|Rajendra of Chola dynasty|
|Nauraspur||Ibrahim Adil Shah II|
|Vijaynagara / Vidyanagara
|Harihara I and Bukka I|
|Rai Pithora||Prithviraj Chauhan|
|Adilabad||Md. Bin Tughlaq|
|Jahapanah||Md. Bin Tughlaq|
|Daulatabad||Md. Bin Tughlaq|
Historical Monuments and Builders
|Sarnath Stupa||Guptas and Vakataka|
|Chaitya of Bhaja||Satavahanas|
|Shore Temple (Mahabalipuram)
|Narasimha II (Pallava)|
|Shore Temple (Mahabalipuram)||Narasimha II (Pallava)|
|Mailashnath Temple (Kanchipuram)||Narasimha II (Pallaya)|
|Vaikuntha Permual Temple (Kanchipuram)||Nandian Varman II|
|Virupaksha Temple (Pattadkal)||Chalukyas of Badami|
|Dasavatara Temple (Deogarh)||Guptas|
|Mahabodhi Temple (Bodhgaya)||Palas|
|Kailashnath Temple(Ellora)||Krishna I (Rashtrakhuta)|
|Elephanta Caves||Rashtrakutas, According to some others Kalcharies|
|Brihadesvara Temple (Tanjore) also called Rajrajeshwara||Rajaraja I (Chola)|
|Lingraj Temple (Bhubeneshwar)||The Eastern Gangas|
|Jagannath Temple (Puri)||Anant Verma (Eastern Ganga)|
|Sun Temple (Konark)||Narasimha Gajapati|
|Kendriya Mahadev (Khajuraho)||Chandellas of Bundelkhand Temple|
|Sun Temple (Modhera)||Solanki of Gujarat|
|Adinath (Vimla Vasahi Temple) Dilwara||Vimala, Minister of Bhima I|
|Neminath Luna||Vastupala and Tejpala,|
|Varahi Temple(Dilwara)||Ministers of Bhima II|
|Hoyasaleswara Temple||Hoyasalas (helebid / Dwarsamudra)|
|Sun Temple (Martanmd)||Lalitaditya (Karkota dynasty of Kashmir)|
|Kritistambha (Chittor)||Rana Kumbha|
|Minakshi Temple(Madurai)||Tirumala Nayak|
|Gol Gumbaj Bijapur||Md. Adil Shah|
|Char Minar(Hyderabmad)||Md. Quli Qutub Shah|
|Jama Masjid(Ahmedabad)||Ahmed Shah I|
|Adina Masjid ( Pandua)||Sikandar Shah|
|Jama Masjid (Mandu)||Mahmud Khaliji|
|Qila-i-Kuhna (with Purana Qila Delhi)||Sher Shah Masjid|
|Atala Masjid (Jaunpur)||Hussain Shah Sharqi|
|Jami Mosque (Jaunpur)||Hussain Shah Sharqi|
|Dakhili Darwaja (Gaur)||Barbak Shah|
|Ekalakhi (Pandua)||Jalauddin Md. Shah|
|Jami Mosque (Mandu) and completed by Mahmud I||Started by Hushang Shah|
|Ashrafi Mahal (Gold Mandu)||Mahmud I Mohur Palace,|
|Tin Darwaja (Ahmedabad)||Ahmed Shah|
|Vitthalswami||Krishnadeva Raya Temple|
|Qadm Rasul (Gaur)||Nusrat Shah|
|Bara Sona Masjid (Gaur)||Nusrat Shah|
|Lal Darwaja (Jaunpur) Sharqi||Raj Bibi / Consort of Mahmud|
|Jama Masjid (Ahmedabad)||Ahmed Shah|
|Hindola Mahal (Mandu)||Hushang Shah|
|Kumbhalgarh||Raja Kumbha Karan|
|Vijaya Stambha (Chittor)||Rana Kumbha Karan|
|Statue of Gomesteswara/ Bahubali||Chamundaraya (Sravanbelgola)|
|Nalanda University||Kumargupta (Guptas)|
|Vikramshila Univeristy||Dharmpala (Palas)|
- A greek ambassador sent by Selucas to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.
- Wrote the book Indika.
- The book provides a graphic picture of the socio-economic conditions of India during the Mauryan period.
- It gives valuable information on municipal administration as well.
- A Buddhist monk
- Visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II.
- A famous Chinese Buddhist monk.
- Visited India during the reign of Harsha.
- Popularly known as the “Prince of Pilgrims”.
- Studied at Nalanda University.
His work is known as Si-Yu-Ki. I-Tsing
- A Chinese traveller.
- Visited India in connection with Buddhism and its learning.
- Wrote the book “Biographics of Eminent Monks”.
- An Arab traveller
- Wrote the book “Murujul Zabab”.
- He has written extensively on contemporary India.
- A venetian traveller.
- Popularly called the “Prince of Medieval Travellers”.
- Wrote a book “The Book of Ser Marco-Polo”.
- The book gives an invaluable account on the economic history of India.
- Visited South India in 1292-93 on his way from China to Persia and collected valuable amount of information of some parts of South India.
- An Arab and a native of Morocco.
- Reached India during the reign of Muhammad-bin Tuglaq.
- Was appointed as Qazi of Delhi during the reign.
- While returning to Morocco in 1353, Ibn Batuta compiled his travel experience in the book called ‘Rehla’.
- It gives valuable information on the reign of Muhammad-bin Tughlaq and the geographical, econonic and social conditions of India.
- Gives reference to Sadi (group of 1000 villages) and Hazar (group of 1000 villages)
- Gives reference to fruit-growing activities. (mango was the prized fruit).
- An Italian and the earliest visitor to Vajayanagar Empire.
- 2. Reached India during the reign of Devaraya I.
- A Persian, sent by Shah Rukh as ambassador to the Zarnorin of Calicut.
- He also visited Vijaynagar during the reign of Deviraya II.
- A Russian horse merchant, spent some years in the deccan and travelled in the Bahmani Kingdom.
- Resided in Bidar for a long time.
- He gave detailed observation of the court, the army and conditions of the people under Bahamani rule.
- Was a Portuguese official in India.
- His works gives information on the Vijayanagara empire.
Ludovico Di Varthema
- A soldier and traveller who was knighted by the Portuguese.
- Wrote a book ‘The Itinerary of Ludovido Di Varthema’ which provides a detailed account of Goa and Calicut and other ports on the West Coast.
- A great Portuguese traveller who visited Vijaynagar during the reign of Krishnadeva Rya.
- Paes has written a descriptive glory of the Vijaynagar empire in his book “The Narrative of Domingo Paes”.
- He found the city of Vijaynagar as large as Rome
- A Portuguese horse dealer who spent three years in the empire of Vijaynagar.
- He wrote a book ‘The Chronicle of Fernao Nuniz’.
- He also translated compiled and edited the account of Paes and Nuniz in his famous work “A Forgotten Empire”.
- First English Merchant to reach Fatehpur Sikri and Agra.
- Visited a number of places in various parts of India and provides valuable information on the trade and urban centres of the late sixteenth century.
- A Portuguese who visited the empire of Vijaynagar after the battle of Talikota.
- He made special comments on the runined splendour of the imperial city.
- An English ambassador of the Britsh King James I to the court of Jahangir.
- He had came to India to secure the trading rights for the English in India.
- He has written valuable information on the reign of Jahangir.
Sir Thoms Roe
- Leader of the Second English Embassy to the court of Jahangir.
- He wrote a book ‘A voyage to the East Indies’.
- The book provides a very useful information about the court business.
Pietro Della Valle
- An Italian traveller who reached Surat in 1623.
- Wrote about social conditions of India.
- An Indian traveller to the Mughal empire in the reign of Shah Jahan.
- He has given a valuable formations on the conditions of the common people in Mughal India.
Jean Baptise Tavernier
- A frenchman, made six voyages to India between 1638 and 1663.
- Wrote a book entitled ‘Travel in India’.
- He has written about the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.
- He has give a detailed description of the diamond trade and mines.
- Reached India in 1656 from Venice.
- Worked as an artilleryman in the army of Dara Shikoh.
- After Dara’s execution he worked as a quack doctor, an artillery captian, an ambassador etc.
- Died at Madras.
- 5. Wrote Storio Do Mogor, written in a mixture of Italian, French and Portguese.
- Reached India in 1656 from France.
- He was a physician and philosopher.
- Lived under the patronage of Danishmand Khan, one of Aurangzeb’s leading nobles.
Dynasties and their Founders
|Asvaghosa (100 AD)||Buddhacharita|
|Bharavi (600 AD)||Kirtarjuniyam|
|Hala (100 AD) asKi||Saptasataka / Gathasaptasi (Prakrit)|
|Sudraka (500-600 AD)||Mrichhkatika (Little Play Cart)|
|Banabhatta (700 AD)||Kadambari|
|Banabhatta (700 AD)||Harsha Charita|
|Gunadhya (200 AD)||Brihat Katha|
|Charak (contemporary of Kanishka)||Charam Samhita (First Book on medicine)|
|Susuta (400 AD)||Susruta Samhita (First book on Surgery)|
|Merutunga (1400 AD)||Prabhandha Chintamani|
|Vijnaneshwara||Mitakshara (on law of inheritance)|
|Kalidasa||Malvika - Agnimitra|
|Panini||Astyadhyayi (First book on Sanskrit grammer)|
|Patanjali (200 BC)||Mahabhasya|
|Amarsimha (During the reign of Chandragupta II)||Amarkosa (lexicography)|
|Jayadeva (1200 AD)||Gita Govinda|
|Mahendravarman (A buriesque)||Mattavilasa Prahasana (Palava king)|
|Ram Das,||Dasabodha Maharashtra Dharma|
|Anonymous Greek||Periplus of the ErythreanSailor Sea|
|Collection of writings||Tirumurais of Nayanars & Alvar as 5th Veda|
(Prakrit exploits of Yasovarman of Kannauj)
|Udyaraja||Rajavinoda (Biography of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat)|
|Somadeva||Kathasaritsagar (Based on Gundhaya’s brihat-Katha)|
Scholars and Their Patrons
|Udayaraja||Mehmud Begarha of Gujarat|
|Hemchandra||Mumarpala Chalukyas of Ahilwada|
|Ravikirti||Pulkesin (Chalukyas of Badami)|
|Vakapatiraja||Yasovarman of Kannauj 720 AD|
|Bhavabhuti||Yasovarman of Kannauj|
|Brithviraj Chauhan Banabhatta Harsha|
|Bharavi||Simha Vishnu (Pallava)|
|Jaidev||Lakshman Sena (Bengal)|
|Bilhana||Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya of Kalyani)|
|Lakshmidhara||Govindchandra (Gadhavalas of Kannauj)|
|Kalhan||Harsha of Kashmir|
|Amir Khusro||Alauddin Khilji|