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Daily Current affairs for UPSC |SSC | RRB 26 october 2018

UPSC - Daily Current Affair

[EDITORIAL] Is it time to introduce wholesale banks in India?

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | LIVE MINT

SYLL.

Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NBFCs, Wholesale banking, Financial Stability Report

Mains level: The problem of funding faced by NBFCs and the need of introducing wholesale banking concept in India


Context

NBFCs facing problems

  1. In the last few weeks, Indian non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), especially housing finance companies, have witnessed a fall in valuations and rising bond yields
  2. Liquidity for NBFCs has also significantly contracted across the board
  3. Yields on AAA-rated commercial papers (CPs) of NBFCs have risen from less than 7.5% in the beginning of September to almost 8.3% now, an increase of 80 basis points

Root of problem

  1. The liability profile of large, non-deposit taking NBFCs significantly comprises wholesale funding, with debentures accounting for nearly half of it
  2. This is not a problem in itself, but for certain types of NBFCs, such as housing finance and infrastructure financing companies, asset-liability mismatches can be severe, especially given the near-absence of markets for long-tenure paper, and payments on short-term borrowings come up sooner than repayments from loans originated
  3. This, coupled with the illiquidity in corporate bond markets, makes NBFCs particularly vulnerable to market reactions, unlike banks, which has access to both retail deposits and the liquidity facility of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

Better performance on NBFCs as compared to banks

  1. The banking sector is struggling to grow their lending book under the weight of persistent non-performing assets (NPAs), and NBFCs are beginning to meet the consequent unmet demand for credit across a variety of sectors and ensuring continuing credit flows to the real economy
  2. NBFCs have been maintaining low net NPA ratios of 3.5% unlike their banking sector counterparts, where net NPAs continue to remain stubbornly high at 6.1% (RBI Financial Stability Report, June 2018)
  3. NBFCs have been found to be relatively more resilient to stress applied for credit risk and  even under severe stress conditions, continued to remain stable, buoyed by high economic capital levels hovering above 20% against a regulatory requirement of 15%

Funding problem of NBFCs

  1. NBFCs have been able to complement the credit intermediation by banks by serving regions, sectors and customer segments that banks have either been unable or unwilling to serve profitably
  2. But, these entities are particularly vulnerable to wholesale funding constraints in the form of high and volatile borrowing costs even when there is no concomitant deterioration in asset quality

Demand for providing LOLR facilities to NBFCs

  1. There have been some calls for providing the RBI’s lender of last resort (LOLR) facilities to NBFCs
  2. But merely providing LOLR facilities to NBFCs, such as the liquidity adjustment facility and the marginal standing facility, would lead to behaviour consistent with moral hazard
  3. This is because, without demand liabilities, a LOLR disincentivises efficient liquidity management
  4. This also creates inconsistency in regulatory treatment between banks and NBFCs, which unlike banks, do not have restrictions like statutory liquidity ratio

Solution: Wholesale Banks

  1. It is worth bringing back to the table and considering wholesale bank licensing for India
  2. This idea was first floated by the RBI Committee for Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Businesses and Low Income Households in 2014
  3. The committee envisaged these licensees to be like universal banks on their asset side with freedoms to originate a variety of assets, but with important differences for their liabilities side
  4. Without permissions to access retail deposits, liabilities would comprise wholesale demand deposits (of minimum ₹5 crore, which is large enough to keep retail depositors at bay, but small enough to ensure a diversified depositor base) and other wholesale funding instruments
  5. This obviates the need to apply micro-prudential tools, which are needed when public retail deposits are accessed

Types of wholesale banks

  1. The committee identified two categories within the wholesale banks, namely wholesale consumer banks and wholesale investment banks, which differed from each other in the nature of assets originated
  2. While the former would originate retail loans, the latter would originate infrastructure and/or corporate loans
  3. The limited construct of the wholesale investment bank was later taken up by the RBI and put forward in the form of the wholesale lending and term financing (WLTF) banks, in its discussion paper in April 2017

Way forward

  1. The regulator would do well to revive the wholesale bank idea and provide a pathway for some of the larger and better-run NBFCs to transform into wholesale banks with a cleaner design of wholesale demand liabilities supported with LOLR and business strategy driven choice of lending book
  2. Such a transition would ensure that these important institutions now have a more permanent and stable way of dealing with their funding problems

Banking Sector Reforms

[EDITORIAL] Retrieving the spoils of colonialism

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | LIVE MINT

SYLL.

Mains Paper 1: History | All syllabus

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Anglo-Sikh war

Mains level: The longstanding demand of bringing historical artefacts back from British and how to achieve that


Context

History & national pride

  1. National and cultural pride and the ambiguities of history are a tricky combination
  2. The question of whether treasures and artefacts taken by colonial and conquering powers should be restored to their countries of origin raises hackles
  3. The issue has gained in prominence over the past few years

Demand for bringing Kohinoor back

  1. The Kohinoor has become in the lapse of ages a sort of historical emblem of the conquest of India
  2. The Archaeological Survey of India in response to a right to information request noted earlier this month that the Kohinoor was “surrendered” and not “handed over”

The history of Kohinoor

  1. The Second Anglo-Sikh War had ended in all but name less than a month previously on 12 March 1849
  2. The Sikh empire had been dismantled within a decade of its creator Ranjit Singh’s death
  3. At the end of March, his 10-year-old son and nominal ruler of the empire, Duleep Singh, had signed the Treaty of Lahore with the victors, the British East India Co
  4. He had ceded all claim to Punjab and surrendered the Kohinoor to the queen of England

International practise of bringing artefacts back

  1. Since the turn of the millennium, Chinese billionaires have been on a spree of acquiring China’s plundered artefacts
  2. Greece has battled for decades for the return of the Parthenon frieze from the British museum—part of the Parthenon Marbles taken from Greece at the beginning of the 19th century by Thomas Bruce, the Earl of Elgin
  3. Egypt has pushed for the return of Nefertiti’s bust, and Nigeria for the Benin Bronzes

Response of European nations to such claims

  1. Earlier this year, French President Emmanuel Macron stated his wish to return looted treasures to former French colonies in Africa
  2. Germany has come up with a code of conduct for museums that includes how to deal with restitution claims

Opportunity for India

  1. With the economic rise of erstwhile subjects has come assertion and redressing historical humiliation is a means of such assertion
  2. New Delhi and Indian museums should take advantage of the turn in public opinion to work with European institutions for repatriation in cases where the evidence is clear

Watch this fantastic video by Mr Shashi Tharoor (Member of Parliament) on understanding India’s demands for reparation from British in a better way:

Historical and Archaeological Findings in News

[EDITORIAL] Think small: on Ganga rejuvenation

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | THE HINDU

SYLL.

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Unique measures required to clean river Ganga


Context

Poor state of sanitation in India

  1. The study conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment in Uttar Pradesh shows that in spite of working in mission mode to expand sanitation, 87% of faecal sludge expelled from toilets in urban areas is untreated
  2. At the national scale, a United Nations report of 2015 estimates that 65,000 tonnes of untreated faeces is introduced into the environment in India annually
  3. Viewed against the 2030 goal to achieve clean water and sanitation for all under the UN Sustainable Development Agenda, this depressing statistic shows how much work remains to be done

Reasons for this condition

  1. State support for improved housing and planned development has never been strong
  2. The National Urban Sanitation Policy of 2008 has not changed that significantly
  3. The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan promised a major shift, but it has focussed more on the basic requirement of household and community toilets in rural and urban areas
  4. Faecal sludge and septage is being collected from household tanks and simply discharged into drains, open land and wetlands

Using decentralised sludge management systems

  1. It is now time for a new approach
  2. Sludge disposal has to be decentralised and different from the strategy being used to clean the Ganga
  3. Immediate investments in decentralised sludge management systems would bring twin benefits: of improving the environment and reducing the disease burden imposed by insanitary conditions
  4. One immediate intervention needed is the creation of an inter-departmental task force to identify land to build small treatment systems for sludge, and to provide easily accessible solutions to houses that are currently discharging waste into open drains
  5. The business of emptying faecal material using tanker trucks needs to be professionalised and de-stigmatised

Way forward

  1. Decentralised sludge management systems are vital to achieve clean water goals
  2. All aspects of the business of sanitation need reform if India is to meet Goal Number 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals with egalitarian policies

Mission Clean Ganga

India and Bangladesh Sign Agreements for Enhancing Inland and Coastal Waterways Connectivity

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | PIB

SYLL.

Mains Paper 2: IR | India & its neighborhood- relations

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Port of call, Name of ports mentioned in newscard

Mains level: How Bangladesh can be used a gateway to northeast India


News

Enhancing connectivity between India-Bangladesh

  1. India and Bangladesh signed several milestone agreements for enhancing inland and coastal waterways connectivity between the two countries for trade and cruise movements
  2. The two countries have signed an agreement to use Chattogram and Mongla Ports in Bangladesh for movement of goods to and from India
  3. A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) has also been signed for movement of passenger and cruise services
  4. An addendum to ‘Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade’ (PIWTT) between India and Bangladesh has been signed for inclusion of Dhubriin India and Pangaonin Bangladesh as new Ports of Call
  5. These agreements will facilitate easier   movement of goods and passengers between the two countries, giving an impetus to trade and tourism

Agreements for the port of call

  1. The two sides agreed to consider inclusion of Rupnarayanriver (National Waterway-86) from Geonkhali to Kolaghat in the protocol route and to declare Kolaghatin West Bengal as new Port of Call
  2. Chilmari was agreed to as a port of call in Bangladesh
  3. The new arrangement will facilitate the movement of fly ash, cement, construction materials etc from India to Bangladesh through IWT on Rupnarayanriver
  4. Both sides agreed to declare Badarpur on river Barak (NW 16) as an Extended Port of Call of Karimganj in Assam and Ghorasal of Ashuganj  in Bangladesh on a reciprocal basis
  5. The North Eastern states would get connected to directly to the ports of Kolkata and Haldia in India and Mongla in Bangladesh through waterways which would facilitate movement EXIM cargo and would also reduce the logistic costs

River cruises

  1. In another important understanding reached at between the two countries, the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for movement of passengers and cruise vessels on Inland Protocol route and coastal shipping routes have been finalised
  2. These river cruise services are likely to commence between Kolkata – Dhaka – Guwahati – Jorhat and back

Reducing distance of Assam

  1. It was also agreed that a Joint Technical Committee will explore the technical feasibility of operationalisation of Dhulian-Rajshahi protocol route up to Aricha
  2. The reconstruction and opening up of Jangipur navigational lock on river Bhagirathi subject to the provisions of the Treaty between India and Bangladesh on Sharing of Ganga Waters at Farakka,1996
  3. This move has the potential to reduce the distance to Assam by more than 450 kms on the protocol routes
  4. Both sides have also agreed for development of Jogighopa as a hub/trans-shipment terminal for movement of cargo to Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Bhutan and notifying Munsiganj River terminal by Bangladesh Customs for routing third party Exim cargo through Kolkata Port

Foreign Policy Watch: India-Bangladesh

Govt. notifies rules on granting citizenship

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | THE HINDU

SYLL.

Mains Paper 1: Social Issues | Population & associated issues

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level:  Citizenship Act, 1955

Mains level:  Implications of grant of citizenship on demography as well as security situation.


News

Context

  1. Since 2011, 30,000 Pakistani citizens have been granted long-term visas, a precursor to citizenship, and 1,500 applications are now pending.
  2. Officials put the number of such migrants in India at two lakh.
  3. There are 400 Pakistani Hindu refugee settlements in Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jaipur.

Empowering District Collectors

  1. The Union Home Ministry has empowered the DCs of certain districts in seven States to accept online applications to grant citizenship to “persecuted minorities” from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh living in India.
  2. A parliamentary committee has been examining the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, which proposes to grant citizenship to six persecuted minorities.
  3. These include Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians and Buddhists who came to India from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh before 2014.

More Responsibilities

  1. Under the new rules, notified on October 24, the migrants can apply online, and the verification reports or the security clearance reports of the applicants shall be made available to the Centre through an online portal.
  2. Citizenship will be granted after the verification reports are received from the States and the Centre.
  3. The Collector or the Secretary shall maintain an online/digital as well as physical register, containing the details of persons so registered or naturalized as a citizen of India.
  4. Their office shall furnish a copy thereof to the Central government within seven days of registration.

A Delegated Power

  1. As the Bill is pending, the Home Ministry gave powers to the Collectors in Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi to grant citizenship and naturalization certificates.
  2. This is carried out under Sections 5 and 6 of the Citizenship Act, 1955.
  3. No such power has been delegated to Assam officials.

Back2Basics

Citizenship

Article 5 : Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution

At the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and –

  1. who was born in the territory of India; or
  2. either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or
  3. who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India.

Certain Acts related to Citizenship of India

  1. Indian nationality law largely follows the jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the jus soli (citizenship by right of birth within the territory).

Acquisition of Indian Citizenship as per Citizenship Act 1955:

Indian Citizenship can be acquired under the following ways :

(1) Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India

(2) Citizenship by birth*

(3) Citizenship by descent

(4) Citizenship by registration

(5) Citizenship by naturalization.

  1. Persons domiciled in the territory of India as on 26 November 1949 automatically became Indian. (Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India.)
  2. Any person born in India on or after 26 January 1950, but prior to the commencement of the 1986 Act on 1 July 1987, is a citizen of India by birth.  [Citizenship by birth]
  • A person born in India on or after 1 July 1987 is a citizen of India if either parent was a citizen of India at the time of the birth. [Citizenship by birth]
  • Those born in India on or after 3 December 2004 are considered citizens of India only if both of their parents are citizens of India or if one parent is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of their birth. [Citizenship by birth].
  1. One can lose citizenship of India in three ways – Renunciation, Termination and Deprivation.

Citizenship and Related Issues

Citizen-Science Repository of Indian mammals

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | THE HINDU

SYLL.

Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspectives following things are important:

Prelims Level: MaOI Repository

Mains Level: Utility of such repository for conservation of mammals in India.


News

Context

  1. As per current estimates, 426 species of mammals are found in India; of them 47 species are endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
  2. Along with well known species, the mammals of 100 species of rats and 126 species of bats and 24 species of whales of dolphins.
  3. Now one can contribute to the cause of science by sharing the picture of the animal on a specific website, providing the location of spotting.
  4. This will make more information available about lesser known mammals of the country.

Mammals of India (MaOI) Repository

  1. Scientists and researchers from the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) in Bangalore have come up with a new citizen-science repository on Indian mammals, called Mammals of India (MaOI).
  2. The website, www.mammalsofindia.org, aims to develop individual species pages for all Indian mammals with information on identification, variation, distribution, breeding and non-breeding ecology and species conservation.
  3. It is an online, peer- reviewed, freely-accessible portal that was launched late September 2018.
  4. By October 25, as many as 768 images, of 161 species of mammals, were uploaded.
  5. It is a first such repository of Mammals in India.

Utility of the repository

  1. These photographic records will help us in having distribution map of mammals in the country.
  2. The photographs will not only help gather information on the distribution of the various species but also interactions between different species of mammals, like predation and mutualism.
  3. The website provides an opportunity to any person to upload geotagged photographic observations about mammals with information on habitat age of the observed individual.
  4. Over time, these observations will be reviewed by subject experts and uploaded on the website.

Spotting and geo-tagging rare species

  1. This citizen-science initiative has seen photographs of rare species — such as Red Serow from Manipur, Lynx a species of wild cat from Jammu and Kashmir, Asian Golden Cat from West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh and Binturong, also known as bear cat, from East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh –
  2. These photos being shared will benefit the researches and public alike.

Biodiversity Atlas (India)

  1. MaOI is a part of the Biodiversity Atlas (India project), which is an initiative of Krushnamegh Kunte, associate professor at NCBS.
  2. Under the project, a popular citizen-science website on butterflies of India www.ifoundbutterflies.org had got to 55,000 reference images in eight years.
  3. Under the same project websites dedicated Moths of India, Cicacds of India, Odonatas of India (dragonflies and damselflies) , Reptiles of India, Amphibians of India and Birds of India are operational.

Wildlife Conservation Efforts

[pib] HRD Ministry launches the web portal of the Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC)

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | PIB

SYLL.

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: SPARC Scheme

Mains level: Measures undertaken to improve of Research and Development ecosystem in India


News

SPARC Portal

  1. The Govt. in August 2018 had sanctioned the SPARC scheme with IIT Kharagpur as the National Coordinating Institute to implement the SPARC programme.
  2. Now the HRD Ministry has launched   the web portal of the Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC).
  3. The SPARC scheme aims at improving the research ecosystem of India’s higher educational institutions by facilitating academic and research collaborations between Indian Institutions and the best institutions in the world.
  4. Under this Scheme, 600 joint research proposals will be awarded for 2 years to facilitate strong research collaboration between Indian research groups with the best in class faculty and renowned research groups in the leading universities of the world.
  5. The collaboration will conduct research in areas that are at the cutting edge of science or with direct social relevance to the mankind, specifically India.

Salient Features of SPARC Scheme

  1. This scheme will improve research ecosystem of  India’s higher educational institutions by facilitating academic and research collaborations/
  2. The Indian institutions will include those from top-100 or category-wise top-100 in NIRF ( including such Private Institutions which are recognized under 12(B) of UGC Act)].
  3. The foreign institutions will be from top-500 overall and top-200 subject-wise institutions listed in QS World University Ranking) from 28 selected nations.
  4. As per the criteria mentioned above, 254 top Indian Institutes and 478 top ranked global Institutes have been already identified.

Thrust Areas of the Research

  1. A set of 5 Thrust Areas has been identified for collaboration under SPARC.
  2. They are Fundamental Research, Emergent Areas of Impact, Convergence, Action-Oriented Research and Innovation-Driven.
  3. Each Thrust Area will have a Section Chair. The role of Section Chair of each Thrust Area is to review shortlist and recommend the potential joint-proposals submitted under SPARC scheme.
  4. The role of a Nodal Institutions will be to help, handhold and coordinate with willing Participating Indian (PI) Institutions to forge alliance with the Institutions of concerned participating foreign country.

Academic Activities under SPARC

SPARC proposes to enable productive academic cooperation by supporting the following critical components that can catalyze impact making research:

  • Visits and long-term stay of top international faculty/researchers in Indian institutions to pursue teaching and research,
  • Visits by Indian students for training and experimentation in premier laboratories worldwide ,
  • Joint development of niche courses, world-class books and monographs, translatable patents, demonstrable technologies or action oriented research outcomes and products ,
  • Publication, Dissemination and Visibility through a high profile annual international conference in India .

Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.

[pib] Creation of Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF)

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | PIB

SYLL.

Mains Paper 3: Economy| Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the FIDF

Mains level: Credit facilities for Fisheries and Aquaculture development in India


News

Context

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has given its approval for creation of special Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).

Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF)

  1. FIDF would provide concessional finance to State Governments / UTs and State entities, cooperatives, individuals and entrepreneurs etc., for taking up of the identified investment activities of fisheries development.
  2. Under FIDF, loan lending will be over a period of five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23 and maximum repayment will be over a period of 12 years inclusive of moratorium of two years on repayment of principal.
  3. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), National Cooperatives Development Corporation (NCDC) and all scheduled Banks shall be the nodal Loaning Entities.

Features of the FIDF

  1. Creation of fisheries infrastructure facilities both in marine and Inland fisheries sectors.
  2. To augment fish production to achieve its target of 15 million tonne by 2020 set under the Blue Revolution; and to achieve a sustainable growth of 8% -9% thereafter to reach the fish production to the level of about 20 MMT by 2022-23.
  3. Employment opportunities to over 9.40 lakh fishers/fishermen/fisherfolk and other entrepreneurs in fishing and allied activities.
  4. To attract private investment in creation and management of fisheries infrastructure facilities.
  5. Adoption of new technologies.

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Cabinet approves National Monitoring Framework on Sustainable Development Goals

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | PIB

SYLL.

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of SDG Monitoring Framework

Mains level: India’s policy measures for attainment of SDGs


News

SDG Monitoring Framework

  1. The Union Cabinet has approved the constitution of a High Level Steering Committee for periodically reviewing and refining the National Indicator Framework (NIF) for monitoring of SDGs with associated targets.
  2. There is no direct financial implication on implementation of the National Indicator Framework.
  3. However, the respective Ministries will need to re-align and strengthen their data systems to facilitate monitoring of the SDG indicators.

Composition

  1. The High Level Steering Committee will be chaired by Chief Statistician of India and Secretary, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
  2. The members will include the Secretaries of data source Ministries and NITI Aayog and Secretaries of other related Ministries as special invitees, with function of reviewing of NIF.

Targets

  1. Measures to mainstream SDGs into on-going national policies, programmes and strategic action plans.
  2. Statistical indicators of NIF to scientifically measure the outcomes of the policies to achieve the targets under different SDGs.
  3. Based on statistical indicator, the MoSPI will bring out national reports on implementation of SDGs to facilitate assessment of progress, identify challenges and give recommendations for follow up at the national level.
  4. High Level Steering Committee will review the National Indicator Framework on regular basis for its improvement.
  5. Data source Ministries / Departments will be responsible for providing regular information to MoSPI on these indicators at required intervals and disaggregation for national and sub-national reporting of SDGs.
  6. Advanced IT tools will be used for close and effective monitoring.

Major impact of the Framework

  1. SDGs integrate economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. It intends eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world with basic motto of ‘Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas’.
  2. SDGs with 17 Goals and 169 Targets intend for promotion of sustainable, inclusive and equitable economic growth, creating greater opportunities for all, reducing inequalities, raising basic standards of living, fostering equitable social development and inclusion, promoting integrated and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems.
  3. NIF will help in outcome-based monitoring & reporting on progress on SDGs at National level.

Back2Basics

Millennium Development Goals

  1. At the Millennium Summit held in 2000 at the UN Headquarters in New York, eight development goals known as the ‘Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs) were adopted.
  2. This formed the blueprint for countries to pursue their national development strategies from 2000 to 2015.
  3. The MDGs comprised eight Goals and addressed various development issues.
  4. The MDGs targets were unevenly achieved across the countries and a need was felt to start fresh discussions to assess the usefulness of the MDGs beyond 2015.

Sustainable Development Goals

  1. The UN General Assembly in its 70thSession considered and adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the next 15 years.
  2. The 17 SDGs came into force with effect from 1stJanuary, 2016.
  3. Though not legally binding, the SDGs have become de facto international obligations and have potential to reorient domestic spending priorities of the countries during the next fifteen years.
  4. Countries are expected to take ownership and establish a national framework for achieving these Goals.
  5. Implementation and success will rely on countries’ own sustainable development policies, plans and programmes.

[pib] India wins Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management Award, 2018

POSTED ONOCTOBER 26, 2018 | PIB

SYLL.

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: CAPAM Awards

Mains level: Read the attached story


News

Context

  • India’s Unnayan Banka and Unified Agriculture Marketsinitiatives have won the Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management (CAPAM) award.

Details of the award winning Initiatives

  1. The initiative entitled “Unnayan Banka- Reinventing Education Using Technology of Banka District, State of Bihar has been awarded under the Category “Innovation Incubation”.
  2. “Unnayan Banka” is an initiative which envisages “Quality education for all’ especially for those at the bottom of the Pyramid, using latest technologies.
  3. It’s a holistic model of overall development of youths from Education to Employability.
  4. Another initiative entitled “Unified Agriculture Markets” of Co-operation Department of Government of Karnataka has also been selected under the Category ‘Innovation in Public Service Management’.
  5. This initiative has also been awarded the overall Gold Award for CAPAM Awards, 2018.

About CAPAM Awards

  1. CAPAM is a non-profit association representing an international network of over 1100 senior public servants, Heads of Government, leading academics and researchers located in over 50 different countries across the Commonwealth.
  2. The association is guided by international leaders who believe in the value of networking, knowledge exchange and the promotion of good governance for the betterment of citizens in the Commonwealth countries.
  3. CAPAM has been announcing its International Innovations Awards (IIA) Programme bi-annually, since 1998.
  4. The CAPAM Awards celebrate the spirit of innovation in the public service by recognizing organizations that have made significant contributions to improve governance and services in the public sector.