Daily Current affairs for UPSC |SSC | RAILWAYS 19 october 2018

Daily Current Affairs

[op-ed snap] Nutrition On My Plate



Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to poverty & hunger

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Nutrition Mission (NNM) – Poshan Abhiyan

Mains level: The need for enabling agriculture extensions via NNM


National Nutrition Mission

  1. India’s flagship programme to improve nutritional outcomes for children, adolescents, pregnant women and lactating mothers, the National Nutrition Mission (NNM) or the Poshan Abhiyan, reflects an amalgamation of scientific principles, political fortitude and technical ingenuity
  2. The key nutrition interventions and strategies, which form the core of NNM, contribute to the targets of the World Health Assembly for nutrition and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), dedicating Goal 2 to the challenge of meeting “zero hunger”

Importance of nutrition

  1. Good nutrition is critical to averting the irreversible cumulative growth and development deficits
  2. It contributes towards improving maternal and child health, learning outcomes, adult productivity and strengthening gender equality

Agriculture sector not included in the program

  1. Nutrition security is inextricably linked to food and agriculture, yet, the agriculture sector does not clearly fall within the scope of the Abhiyan
  2. There are areas where the sector could support the Abhiyan and help to achieve its objectives
  3. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations can support ongoing NNM efforts related to dietary diversity through agricultural diversification and sustainable intensification, thus making the agriculture and food system more nutrition-sensitive, climate-resilient and socio-economically viable simultaneously

Nutrition security ignored

  1. Today, globally, 821 million people suffer chronic undernourishment of which 196 million reside in India, according to ‘The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018’ report
  2. The agriculture sector focused on increasing food production — particularly staples, which led to lower production and consumption of indigenous traditional crops/grains, fruits and other vegetables, impacting food and nutrition security in the process
  3. The twin burden of malnutrition — that is, undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, coexists in many countries and its cost to the global economy is equivalent to $3.5 trillion a year

Enabling agricultural extension

  1. The time is opportune for agricultural interventions such as increasing the production of targeted nutrition-rich crops (nutri-cereals), homestead gardens, and diversification of the agricultural production system towards fruits, vegetables and aquaculture, to address the adverse effects of malnutrition
  2. With the Poshan Abhiyan advocating the “Triple A” approach, that is building the capacity of ASHA, Anganwadi Worker (AWW) and Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM) workers, there is an opportunity to leverage the agriculture extension services in the country
  3. The extension workers have a direct and ongoing contact with smallholder farmers
  4. They can be the agents of change for nutritional intervention by leveraging modern technologies to impart nutrition-linked messages for bringing about sustainable behaviour change towards food and nutrition
  5. UN agencies such as FAO can provide support to foster research on areas such as bio-fortification of crops, enhancing production diversity including the coarse grains/millets and food safety

Way forward

  1. The Poshan Abhiyan presents an opportunity for inter-sectoral collaboration that can amplify collective actions to improve nutrition indicators and achieve the goal of “zero hunger” in the country
  2. Agriculture is not merely an activity to make “food” available to the people but also a means of achieving complete nutrition for the citizens of this country

Hunger and Nutrition Issues – GHI, GNI, etc.

[op-ed snap] Unclogging our oceans



Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Ghost gears problem and innovative solutions to tackle it


The problem of ghost gears in oceans

  1. There are many reports of divers regularly making underwater trips just to extract nets that have sunk to the ocean floor off India’s coasts, ranging from Tamil Nadu to Maharashtra
  2. The problem of ghost gear (any fishing equipment that has been lost, discarded or abandoned in water bodies) has grown from a fishing fallout that people had not heard of to one that is now difficult to ignore

The threat to ocean species

  1. Between 2011 and 2018 alone, the Olive Ridley Project, a U.K. registered charity that removes ghost nets and protects sea turtles, recorded 601 sea turtles being entangled in ghost gear near the Maldives, of which 528 were Olive Ridleys — the same species that come in thousands to Odisha’s coasts to nest
  2. Other casualties worldwide include whales, dolphins, sharks and even pelagic birds
  3. In 2016, over 5,400 marine animals belonging to 40 different species were recorded as entangled in ghost gear or associated with it
  4. Ghost nets are often ‘ghost fishers’
  5. Ocean currents carry them for thousands of km across the ocean floor, ensnaring, injuring and drowning marine life and damaging live corals along the way

Impact on the economy

  1. The consequences of overfishing, using nets of the smallest mesh size, and illegal fishing are worrying
  2. Entire fishing communities are affected by these actions, especially in developing countries like India where the demand for fish keeps rising

How to tackle the problem of ghost gears?

  1. In countries like Canada and Thailand, fishermen retain their used nets; these are recycled into yarn to craft socks and even carpet tiles
  2. A gear-marking programme is being tested in Indonesia so that the trajectory of gear if it drifts away, can be studied better
  3. In one instance in India, ghost nets hauled from Kerala’s Kollam have been used to pave roads

Way forward

  1. India can emulate innovative solutions from across the world to tackle the problem of ghost gear
  2. Efforts to carry out transformation over 7,500 km of India’s coasts, as well as inland water bodies, are the need of the hour
  3. Outreach and education among fishing communities would be crucial along with policy-level changes

Wildlife Conservation Efforts

Should India have two time zones? National timekeeper adds new arguments



Mains Paper 1: Geography | Geographical features & their location

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Latitude and longitudes, IST system

Mains level: Demand of two time zones being raised by northeast India and weight behind it


Debate over 2 time zones

  1. Over the years, various citizens and political leaders have debated whether India should have two separate time zones
  2. The demand is based on the huge difference in daylight times between the country’s longitudinal extremes, and the costs associated with following the same time zone
  3. Opposition to the idea is based on impracticability — particularly the risk of railway accidents, given the need to reset times at every crossing from one time zone into another

New research suggests 2 time zones

  1. Now, a proposal for two time zones has come from India’s national timekeeper itself
  2. Scientists at the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research’s National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL), which maintains Indian Standard Time, have published a research article describing the necessity of two time zones, with the new one an hour ahead of the existing time zone

Why have 2 time zones?

  1. India extends from 68°7’E to 97°25’E, with the spread of 29° representing almost two hours from the geographic perspective
  2. This has led to the argument that early sunrise in the easternmost parts — the Northeast — causes the loss of many daylight hours by the time offices or educational institutions open and that early sunset, for its part, leads to higher consumption of electricity
  3. Research identifies where the two time zones can be demarcated from each other — at the “chicken neck” that connects the Northeast to the rest of India, an area that is spatially narrow and reduces the possibility of railway accidents
  4. As the railway signals have not yet been fully automated in the country, the border between the two time zones should have a very narrow spatial-width with the minimum number of train stations so that the train timings while crossing the border can be managed manually without any untoward incidents
  5. The article also puts a figure to the country’s potential savings in energy consumption — 20 million kWh a year — if it does follow two time zones
  6. Synchronising office hours — as well as biological activities — to sunrise and sunset timings is important

The new system of time zones

  1. The research paper proposes to call the two time zones IST-I (UTC + 5.30 h) and IST-II (UTC + 6.30 h)
  2. The proposed line of demarcation is at 89°52’E, the narrow border between Assam and West Bengal
  3. States west of the line would continue to follow IST (to be called IST-I). States east of the line — Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Islands —would follow IST-II

Global & Indian standard time

  1. The geographic “zero line” runs through Greenwich, London
  2. It identifies GMT, now known as Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), which is maintained by the Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in France
  3. Indian Standard Time, maintained by CSIR-NPL, is based on a line of longitude that runs through Mirzapur in UP
  4. At 82°33’E, the line is 82.5° east of Greenwich, or 5.5 hours (5 hours 30 minutes) ahead of UCT

North-East India – Security and Developmental Issues

Data localisation: why, why not



Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media & social networking sites in internal security challenges

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Data Mirroring and Localisation, BN Srikrishna Committee

Mains level: Rising cyber crimes and the role data protection bill would play in reducing them.


RBI pushes for Data Localisation

  1. The world weighs free global data flow against national security.
  2. Companies around the world rushed to try and meet a RBI-mandated deadline to store Indian users financial data in India, reigniting conversation about data localisation.
  3. The Govt. of India has firmed up its stance on storing data of Indian users in the country, to the discontent of international players and the delight of domestic ones.
  4. This wave again is the latest digital battleground of ongoing power wars between government and industry.

Data Localisation

  1. It is a concept that the personal data of a country’s residents should be processed and stored in that country.
  2. Some directives may restrict flow entirely, while others more leniently allow for conditional data sharing or data mirroring – in which only a copy has to be stored in the country.
  3. As of now, much of cross-border data transfer is governed by individual bilateral “mutual legal assistance treaties” (MLATs).

Why is the issue again in focus?

  1. In early April, the RBI issued a circular mandating that payment data be stored only in India by October 15.
  2. This covered everyone every global payments & technology companies and various domestic & foreign prepaid payment instruments (PPIs).
  3. RBI has not instituted any fines for those who have missed the deadline but is seeking schedules of pending data transfers to India.

Draft Law on Data Protection

  1. In July 2018, a data protection draft law by a committee headed by retired Justice B N Srikrishna recommended for a copy of personal data of Indians to be in India (data mirroring).
  2. A subset of that data, labelled critical personal data, must be stored and processed only in India.
  3. The draft E-com policy recommended localisation for community data and data generated by users in India from various sources including e-commerce platforms, social media and search engines.
  4. It also discussed strategies to incentivise domestic data storage in India through facilitating data infrastructure.
  5. There could be, say a 2-year, sunset period for industry to adjust before localisation becomes mandatory a/c to the report.

Why need Data Localisation?

  1. A common argument by officials is that localisation will help Indian law enforcement access user data.
  2. Proponents also highlight the security against foreign attacks and surveillance.
  3. An RBI circular ruled that to ensure better monitoring, it is important to have supervisory access to data stored with these system providers.
  4. This especially gained prominence when incidences of lynchings across the country were linked to WhatsApp rumours whose stance on encrypted content frustrated government officials.
  5. Concerns also arose when Facebook declared that its Cambridge Analytica controversy had affected Indian users as well.

Data is the new Oil

  1. In the home of the largest open Internet market in the world, companies like PhonePe claim that national wealth creation relies on in-house data storage.
  2. The e-commerce policy took on a similar stance, championing domestic innovation, and the data protection report also mentioned harnessing India’s digital economy.

Arguments in Favor

  1. Along with government support, most domestic-born technology companies (which tend to have heavy foreign investments) support data localisation.
  2. Most of these firms store their data exclusively in India.
  3. Some Indian companies have strongly argued that data regulation for privacy and security will have little teeth without localisation, citing models in China and Russia.
  4. These domestic companies are rivals of many big US giants and condemn the large tax differences between international companies operating in India and those with a permanent establishment in the country.
  5. Many argue that localisation would lead to a larger presence in India overall, such as local offices, and increase tax liability and open more jobs.

Argument against data localisation

  1. Industry bodies, especially those with significant ties to the US, have slung heavy backlash.
  2. Many are concerned about a Fractured Internet (simply put servers go offline and out of access) due to uncertain protectionist policies.
  3. Much of this sentiment hampers to the values of a globalised, competitive internet marketplace, where costs and speeds determine information flows, rather than nationalistic borders.
  4. Opponents say that this, in turn, may backfire on India’s own young start-ups that are attempting global growth, or on larger firms that process foreign data in India.
  5. Critics caution against state misuse and surveillance of personal data.
  6. They also argue that security and government access is not achieved by localisation.
  7. Even if the data is stored in the country, the encryption may still remain out of the reach of national agencies due to company’s privacy concerns.

Crimes across the globe not covered

  1. The draft bill mandates local storage of data relating to Indian citizens only
  2. Localisation can provide data only for crimes that have been committed in India, where both the perpetrator and victim are situated in India
  3. Prevalent concerns around transnational terrorism, cyber crimes and money laundering will often involve individuals and accounts that are not Indian, and therefore will not be stored in India
  4. For investigations into such crimes, Indian law enforcement will have to continue relying on cooperative models

Global Scenario

  1. India’s major partner, US leave regulation up to the state and sector.
  2. US also signed the Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act (CLOUD Act) which established data sharing with certain countries.
  3. China mandates localisation for all “important data” held by “critical information infrastructure” and any cross border personal data transfer must undergo a security assessment.
  4. Russia also has the most restrictive regulation for data flow with strict localisation and high penalties.
  5. The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) does not mandate all data to be localised, but rather restricts flow to countries with a strong data protection framework.

Way Forward

  1. The CLOUD Act seeks to ease control over data from U.S. authorities.
  2. The law will for the first time allow tech companies to share data directly with certain foreign governments.
  3. This provides India the data not just for crimes committed within their borders but also for transnational crimes involving their national interests.
  4. A fundamental error that the Srikrishna Committee seems to have made is in its belief that the location of data should determine who has access to it.
  5. This scenario will hardly improve even after technology companies relocate Indian data to India.

Social Media: Prospect and Challenges

Medical registry to track implantable medical devices



Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Ayushman Bharat scheme

Mains level: The inequality between public and the private sector in healthcare and its impact on citizens especially poor


Faulty Designs risking patients lives

  1. A recent investigation on hip implants manufactured by well known firm required some patients to undergo revision surgeries because of allegedly faulty designs.
  2. The investigation has found the firm to be evasive in providing the information regarding the design of the implants and patient details.
  3. Such revision surgeries pose serious risks to patients.
  4. Hence registries are needed for all implantable devices to effectively study adverse effects associated with medical devices.

Proposed Registry for Implantable Medical Devices

  1. The Drug Technical Advisory Board (DTAB) will take up a proposal for setting up a national registry for all implantable high-risk devices to protect patients.
  2. The new registry being will be on the lines of the UK’s medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency (MHRA) and the Australian registry.
  3. As many as 4,700 patients in India had received ASR hip implants between June 2004 and August 2010.
  4. This will encourage healthcare professionals, patients and consumers to submit voluntary reports about serious adverse events that may be associated with a medical device, as well as use errors, product quality issues.
  5. These reports, along with data from other sources, can provide critical information that will help improve patient safety.

Expected benefits of the registry

  1. Setting up of registry will help issue warnings and alerts to the manufacturers and consumer in case of a device malfunction.
  2. The registry will also help in providing a trend analysis of performance and usage of various medical devices in India annually.
  3. Provisions will be introduced under the law to have legal backing for issuing alerts and warnings to a manufacturer.

Other Policy Measures

  1. The government is also contemplating changes under the Medical Device Rules, 2017.
  2. This will make it mandatory for companies to compensate patients in case of serious adverse events due to malfunctioning of a medical device.

Way Forward

  1. The patients have to live a restricted lifestyle with a compromised physical state, thus putting them at pain and agony throughout their life.
  2. This will also have a bearing on their dependents apart from loss of work and no amount of money can fill this void.
  3. There should be adequate compensation provided to each and every patient who had undergone revision surgery to mitigate some of the pain and sufferings.


Hip Replacement Surgery

  1. Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant, that is, a hip prosthesis.
  2. Such joint replacement orthopaedic surgery is generally conducted to relieve arthritis pain or in some hip fractures.
  3. A total hip replacement consists of replacing both the acetabulum and the femoral head.
  4. The Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) Hip uses the metal bearing acetabular cup resurfaced with metal prosthesis that fits into acetabular cup.
  5. It is secured to the patient’s femur with a short stem inserted into the top of the femur bone.

Organ & Tissue Transplant- Policies, Technologies, etc.

Ancient rocks in India give clues to early life



Mains Paper 1: Geography | Salient features of world’s physical geography

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Biomarkers

Mains level: Geological era’s of Earth and their important features


Cambrian Explosion

  1. It refers to the sudden appearance in the fossil record of complex animals with mineralized skeletal remains 541 million years ago.
  2. Researchers have found the oldest clue to the mystery of animal life in ancient rocks and oils dating back at least 100 million years before the famous Cambrian explosion of animal fossils.
  3. Researchers at the University of California tracked molecular signs of animal life, called biomarkers, as far back as 660-635 million years ago during the Neoproterozoic era.
  4. In ancient rocks and oils from India, Oman, Siberia, they found a steroid compound produced only by sponges, which are among the earliest forms of animal life.

Biomarkers: Clues of early life

  1. The research looked for distinctive and stable biomarkers that indicate the existence of sponges and other early animals, rather than single-celled organisms that dominated the earth for billions of years.
  2. The biomarker identified, a steroid compound named 26-methylstigmastane (26-mes), has a unique structure that is currently only known to be synthesized by certain species of modern sponges called demosponges.
  3. This is the first evidence that demosponges, and hence multicellular animals, were thriving in ancient seas at least as far back as 635 million years ago.
  4. This adds among the earliest forms of animal life existed in that period.



  1. A sponge is a member of the phylum Porifera.
  2. It is a simple marine animal with many cells, but no mouth, muscles, heart or brain.
  3. Demosponges is a class that contains most of the sponges.
  4. The sponges in this class make their skeleton from Spongin, a special protein.

Historical and Archaeological Findings in News

[pib] Revised CBSE Affiliation Bye-laws



Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: CBSE affiliation rules and bye-laws

Mains level: Assured outcome with the new bye-laws and its impacts on schooling.



  • The Union HRD Ministry has released the new CBSE Affiliation Bye-laws to ensure speed, transparency, hassle-free procedures and ease of doing business with the CBSE.

What are Bye-laws?

  1. CBSE is a national level Board conducting examinations for Classes X and XII.
  2. It affiliates schools across India and abroad upon fulfillment of various conditions as prescribed in its Affiliation Bye Laws.
  3. The Affiliation Byelaws in position were first made in the year 1988 and were last modified in the year 2012.

What’s special with new Bye-laws?

  1. The new byelaws denote a major shift from the highly complex procedures followed earlier, to a simplified system based on preventing duplication of processes.
  2. There is duplication of processes at CBSE and state government level.
  3. For issuing recognition under RTE Act and NOC, the state education administration verifies various certificates to be obtained from local bodies, revenue department, cooperatives department, etc.
  4. The CBSE re-verifies them after applications are received. This is very long drawn process.
  5. Therefore, to prevent this duplication, schools will now be required to submit only two documents at the time of applying for affiliation, instead of 12-14 documents being submitted earlier.
  6. These documents will include a document vetted by the head of district education administration validating all aspects such as building safety, sanitation, land ownership, etc, and a self-affidavit where the school would certify its adherence to fee norms, infrastructure norms, etc.

 Expected benefits

  1. As a result of this major change CBSE shall not revisit any of the aspects vetted by the state during inspection.
  2. The delay due to scrutiny and non-compliance of deficiencies in these documents shall be drastically curtailed.

Other major benefits include:

i. Outcome based Inspection

  1. Inspection of schools will now be outcome-based and more academic and quality oriented, rather than focussing only on school infrastructure.
  2. The inspection will focus on academic excellence and progress of students over time, innovations and quality of pedagogy, capacity of teachers and teacher training etc.
  3. This will not only help the Board and the school to track students’ progress over time, but will also identify areas that would need further efforts.

ii. Provision of mandatory training

  1. The new affiliation bye laws also lay thrust on achieving academic excellence through mandatory teacher training.
  2. Even the Principals and Vice Principals of every school are expected to undergo two days mandatory training on an annual basis.

iii. Focus on Innovation and Conservation

  1. A special category of innovative schools has been added to include specialized schools which will implement innovative ideas in the fields of skill development, sports, arts, sciences, etc.
  2. The byelaws encourage schools to promote environmental conservation through harnessing solar energy, rain water harvesting, greening of campus, recycling and segregation of waste, Swachhata on campus, etc.

IV.  Ensures Transparency in Fee structures

  1. Regarding fee, the provisions include full fee disclosure to be made and no hidden charges to be levied by schools in the garb of fees.
  2. The byelaws clearly state that fee is to be charged as per the regulation of the government and fee revision shall be subject to laws, regulations and directions of the government.

Way Forward

  1. CBSE has 20783 schools affiliated to it in India and 25 other countries, with over 1.9 crore students in these schools, and more than 10 lakh teachers.
  2. The revised bye laws will positively impact the existing and future schools by easing procedures and redirecting their focus towards improving the quality of education.

Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.

[pib] Exercise Dharma Guardian- 2018



Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings & agreements involving India &/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level:  Ex. Dharma Guardian

Mains level:  India -Japan Defence cooperation



  • To promote Military cooperation, India and Japan are all set to hold the first ever joint military exercise ‘DHARMA GUARDIAN-2018’ involving the Indian Army and Japan Ground Self Defence Force.

Exercise Dharma Guardian- 2018

  1. The Indian contingent will be represented by 6/1 GORKHA RIFLES while the Japanese contingent will be represented by 32 Infantry Regiment of the Japanese Ground Self Defence Force.
  2. During the 14 day long exercise, due emphasis will be laid on increasing interoperability between forces from both countries.
  3. Both sides will jointly train, plan and execute a series of well developed tactical drills for neutralisation of likely threats that may be encountered in urban warfare scenario.
  4. Experts from both sides will also hold detailed discussions to share their expertise on varied operational aspects.

Importance of the Exercise

  1. The exercise will be another step in deepening strategic ties including closer defence cooperation between the two countries.
  2. It will contribute immensely in developing mutual understanding and respect for each other’s militaries and also facilitate tracking the worldwide phenomenon of  terrorism.

Foreign Policy Watch: India-Japan

Largest galaxy cluster in early universe found



Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Hyperion Super-galaxy

Mains level: Space Objects and their significance



  1. Astronomers have discovered the largest and most massive galaxy super cluster yet found in the early universe.
  2. It was formed just over two billion years after the Big Bang.


  1. The galaxy proto-supercluster, nicknamed Hyperion, was identified using the VIMOS instrument on European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope in Chile.
  2. Located in the constellation of Sextans, Hyperion was identified by a novel technique to analyse the vast amount of data obtained from the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey.
  3. Hyperion has a calculated mass more than one million billion times that of the Sun, making it the largest and most massive structure to be found so early in the formation of the universe.
  4. Surprisingly the galaxy was evolved in very less time when the universe was relatively young.

What makes Hyperion distinct?

  1. Hyperion has a very complex structure, containing at least seven high-density regions connected by filaments of galaxies.
  2. Its size is comparable to superclusters closer to Earth, though it has a very different structure.
  3. Superclusters closer to Earth tend to be a much more concentrated distribution of mass with clear structural features.
  4. But in Hyperion, the mass is distributed much more uniformly in a series of connected blobs, populated by loose associations of galaxies.
  5. The contrast between Hyperion and less distant superclusters is most likely due to the fact that nearby superclusters have had billions of years for gravity to gather matter together into denser regions.
  6. Hyperion is expected to evolve into something similar to the immense structures in the local universe such as the superclusters making up the Sloan Great Wall or the Virgo Supercluster that contains our own galaxy, the Milky Way.


  1. The Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) is a wide field imager and a multi-object spectrograph installed at the ESO.
  2. The instrument is used for deep astronomical surveys and delivers visible images and spectra of up to 1,000 galaxies at a time
  3. It can measure the distance to hundreds of galaxies at the same time, making it possible to map the position of galaxies within the forming supercluster in three dimensions.