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Daily Current affairs 28 August 2019

UPSC - Daily Current Affair

GS Paper 2:

  1. A monumental litmus test.
  2. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY).
  3. Child well-being index.
  4. Janaushadhi Sugam.
  5. Project SURE.
  6. National Digital Library of India.
  7. Eastern Economic Forum.

 

GS Paper 3:

  1. Rediscovering development banks.
  2. SPG, NSG and other security forces — How India protects its VIPs.

 

Facts for Prelims:

  1. Tarantula
  2. Indonesia’s new capital.
  3. Buddha Nala.
  4. Shaheen VIII.
  5. C-DOT’s latest innovations.

 


 

Comprehensive coverage of PIB, the Hindu and relevant articles from various other sources:

 

GS Paper 2:

Topics covered:

  1. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

 

A monumental litmus test

 

What to study?

For Prelims: Overview of Articles 370, 367 and 35A, instrument of accession.

For Mains: The Recent controversy over Article 370, centre’s move and what’s the way out?

 

Context: The Supreme Court of India is all set to face a litmus test. The cases before it concern not only the validity of the government’s decision to virtually revoke Article 370 of the Constitution — and, with it, the special status that Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) enjoyed — but also the legality of the chilling limitations placed on civil liberties in the region. How the court decides these cases will have a deep bearing on the destiny of democracy in India.

 

Why the move to suspend Article 370 is being criticised?

  1. The government has achieved this not through debate and deliberation but through constitutional obfuscation.
  2. In defending its decision, the government has already offered a plethora of justifications — in this, the important and critical need to re-assimilate in J&K, Kashmiri Pandits who suffered a harrowing exodus from the State has scarcely found mention.
  3. In finding itself thwarted by these constraints, the government says, Article 367, which provides rules for interpreting the Constitution, has been modified insofar as it applies to J&K by providing that wherever the term “Constituent Assembly of the State” was used in Article 370 it would refer only to the “Legislative Assembly of the State”.
  4. The substitution, in effect, does not merely alter Article 367, but it also impinges on Article 370 itself, something which the provision, decidedly prohibits.
  5. Besides, the task has been finished when the state was under President’s Rule.
  6. Because J&K was under President’s Rule, Parliament had now stepped into the shoes of the State’s Legislative Assembly. This meant that, as a result of the newly shaped Article 367, it also acted as the State’s Constituent Assembly.
  7. The upshot of all this was that a decision of portentous significance affecting J&K’s political future was made even though the people of the State were afforded neither an opportunity to speak for themselves nor the chance to speak through their own elected representatives.

 

What Article 370 said?

  1. Article 370’s raison d’être is contained in the Instrument of Accession signed by Hari Singh, the then Maharaja of J&K, on October 26, 1947.
  2. The provision, in constitutionalising the terms of that accord, stipulated that Parliament could legislate for J&K only over matters concerning external affairs, defence and communications.
  3. Where Parliament intended to legislate over additional areas otherwise provided for in the terms of the accession, it could do so by consulting the State government.
  4. But where it proposed to enact laws beyond the agreed subjects it required not only the State government’s concurrence but also the express ratification of J&K’s Constituent Assembly.
  5. The Article, therefore, clearly envisaged the idea that J&K would have a Constitution of its own.
  6. Article 370(3) accorded the President a power to declare either the Article in full or any part of it inoperative on the recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State. This recommendation was a “condition precedent” to any effort at abrogating the provision.
  7. It was thus clear that once J&K’s Constitution came into force, together with Article 370, it would form a cohesive means of governing the State.

No doubt, this original arrangement was meant to be temporary. But it was temporary only in the sense that the structure of governance would eventually be elucidated by the J&K Constitution that the State’s Constituent Assembly was meant to frame. 

 

Conclusion:

Regardless of the ends of the government, what ought to be clear is that the rule of law demands that any state action is bound by the Constitution and its limits. After all, that is precisely why we have a Constitution underpinning our democratic republic.

When judges exercise their minds on the simple legality of the government’s orders it should be evident to them that the manner of quashing of Article 370 is unlawful. And that, for the court, is all that should matter.

The processes concretised by the Constitution are important because they partake in them a vow to pay heed to the consent of the governed. When those processes are allowed to be broken they strike at the understanding that sovereignty rests with the people.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered:

  1. Schemes for the vulnerable sections of the society.

 

 Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)

 

What to study?

For Prelims: PMU- key features.

For Mains: PMUY- objectives, features, significance and measures needed to sustain the momentum.

 

Context: Despite government’s support for the promotion of clean cooking fuel, large people in India still rely on solid fuels.

 

Why?

  1. Most people believe that food cooked on a chulha was healthier and tastier. In contrast, rotis cooked on gas cause indigestion.
  2. They also believe cooking with solid fuels was healthy for the person cooking too: fumes purified the eyes because they caused tears, and in blowing into a traditional stove, a woman did kasrat (exercise).

 

What can policymakers do to achieve exclusive use of clean fuels in rural India?

Three strategies could work: communicating the harms of solid fuels and the benefits of cleaner fuels; reducing the cost of LPG cylinder refills in rural areas; and promoting gender equality within households, particularly in cooking and related tasks.

 

List of measures:

  1. A large anti-tobacco style campaign communicating that solid fuels harm respiratory health, may change these beliefs. Similarly, advertisements that food cooked on gas can be as tasty and healthy as food cooked on a chulha would be helpful.
  2. Reducing LPG prices in rural areas, where residents are poorer and solid fuels are easier to access, would also help. One way is to build on the targeting experience of the National Food Security Act.
  3. Current Ujjwala messaging, which focuses on the benefits of clean fuels for women, reinforces inequality. Advertisements showing that gas is so good that even men can cook with it will challenge both misinformation on LPG and gender inequalities in household tasks.

 

About Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:

It aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households.

Who is eligible? Under the scheme, an adult woman member of a below poverty line family identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) is given a deposit-free LPG connection with financial assistance of Rs 1,600 per connection by the Centre.

Identification of households: Eligible households will be identified in consultation with state governments and Union territories. The scheme is being implemented by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

 

Key objectives of the scheme are:

  1. Empowering women and protecting their health.
  2. Reducing the serious health hazards associated with cooking based on fossil fuel.
  3. Reducing the number of deaths in India due to unclean cooking fuel.
  4. Preventing young children from significant number of acute respiratory illnesses caused due to indoor air pollution by burning the fossil fuel.

 

What makes LPG adoption necessary?

  1. A large section of Indians, especially women and girls, are exposed to severe household air pollution (HAP) from the use of solid fuels such as biomass, dung cakes and coal for cooking.
  2. A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places HAP as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
  3. According to the World Health Organization, solid fuel use is responsible for about 13% of all mortality and morbidity in India (measured as Disability-Adjusted Life Years), and causes about 40% of all pulmonary disorders, nearly 30% of cataract incidences, and over 20% each of ischemic heart disease, lung cancer and lower respiratory infection.

 

Need of the hour:

The PMUY is a bold and much-needed initiative, but it should be recognised that this is just a first step.

The real test of the PMUY and its successor programmes will be in how they translate the provision of connections to sustained use of LPG or other clean fuels such as electricity or biogas.

Truly smokeless kitchens can be realized only if the government follows up with measures that go beyond connections to actual usage of LPG. This may require concerted efforts cutting across Ministries beyond petroleum and natural gas and including those of health, rural development and women and child welfare.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 2:

Topics covered:

  1. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

Project SURE

 

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: Key features and significance of the programme.

 

ContextProject SURE has been launched. It is a move towards sustainable fashion.

 

About Project SURE:

  1. The SURE project is a commitment by India’s apparel industry to set a sustainable pathway for the Indian fashion industry.
  2. SURE stands for ‘Sustainable Resolution’ – a firm commitment from the industry to move towards fashion that contributes to a clean environment.
  3. The project has been launched by the union Textiles Ministry, along with Clothing Manufacturers Association of India (CMAI); United Nations in India; and IMG Reliance.
  4. Significance: It will be the first holistic effort by the apparel industry towards gradually introducing a broader framework for establishing critical sustainability goals for the industry.
  5. This framework would help the industry reduce its carbon emissions, increase resource efficiency, tackle waste and water management, and create positive social impact to achieve long-term sustainability targets.

 

Five-point Sustainable Resolution:

  1. Develop a complete understanding of the environmental impact of the garments being currently produced by our brand.
  2. Develop a sustainable sourcing policy for consistently prioritizing and utilizing certified raw materials that have a positive impact on the environment.
  3. Make the right decisions about how, where, and what we source across the value chain by selecting sustainable and renewable materials and processes and ensuring their traceability.
  4. Communicate our sustainability initiatives effectively to consumers and media through our online and physical stores, product tags/labeling, social media, advertising campaigns and events.
  5. Through these actions, shift a significant percentage of our supply chain to a sustainable chain by the year 2025, addressing critical global issues such as climate change, contributing to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and building a world that is safe for the future generations, as an acceptance of a responsibility we all share.

 

Sources: pib.


GS Paper 2:

Topics covered:

  1. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

Child well-being index

 

What to study?

For Prelims: About the index and it’s key findings.

For Mains: The issue of child well- being in India, challenges faced by the children and measures to ensure their well- being.

 

Context: The India child well-being index has been released by the non government organisation World Vision India and research institute IFMR LEAD.

 

About the index:

  1. The child well-being index, a tool designed to measure and tracks children’s well-being comprehensively.
  2. This report provides insights on health, nutrition, education, sanitation and child protection. 
  3. The dimensions of the index include healthy individual development, positive relationships and protective contexts.
  4. It is a crucial report that can be mined both by the Government and civil organisations to achieve the goal of child well-being.
  5. One of the primary objectives of this index is to garner attention to the under-researched theme of child well-being in India, and inspire further academic and policy conversations on related issues.

 

Key findings of the report:

  1. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Puducherry topped the charts.
  2. Meghalaya, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh featured at the bottom.
  3. The data shows that even states that are performing best in overall child well-being, are not doing so well in indicators of health.

 

Challenges present:

In terms of health, it has to be ensured that the child is taken care of in the first 1,000 days of life. Stunting is a big issue in India and this is linked to poor sanitation and lack of safe water.

 

Need of the hour:

States should look at their respective scores on the dimensions of child well-being, and prepare for priority areas of intervention with specific plans of action.

This should also trigger policy level changes, seek better budgetary allocations and initiate discussions with all stakeholders, which can help in enhancing the quality of life of all children in the country.

 

Way ahead:

Children have the potential to transform the country, but if neglected, they will exacerbate the burden of poverty and inequality. It is imperative that all stakeholders prioritise and invest in the well-being of our children.

 

Add-on information:

  1. India ranks 113 of 176 countries on the End of Childhood Index. It is part of the Global Childhood Report released by Save the Children, a nonprofit that works for child rights.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 2:

Topics covered:

  1. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.

 

Janaushadhi Sugam

 

What to study?

For Prelims: Features of PMBJP and Janaushadhi Suvidha.

For Mains: Health facilities for the underprivileged- need and efforts by the government, generic medicines and their increasing popularity worldwide.

 

ContextUnion Ministry for Chemicals and Fertilizers has launched a mobile application “Janaushadhi Sugam”.

  • The application aims to enable people to search Janaushadhi generic medicines and the stores at the tip of their fingers.
  • It will also help analyse product comparison of Generic vs Branded medicine in form of MRP & overall Savings.

 

About PMBJP:

‘Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana’ is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. Of India, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through special kendra’s known as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra.

Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra (PMBJK) have been set up to provide generic drugs, which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs.

Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) is the implementing agency of PMBJP. BPPI (Bureau of Pharma Public Sector Undertakings of India) has been established under the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. of India, with the support of all the CPSUs.

 

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE SCHEME:

  1. Ensure access to quality medicines.
  2. Extend coverage of quality generic medicines so as to reduce the out of pocket expenditure on medicines and thereby redefine the unit cost of treatment per person.
  3. Create awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity so that quality is not synonymous with only high price.
  4. A public programme involving Government, PSUs, Private Sector, NGO, Societies, Co-operative Bodies and other Institutions.
  5. Create demand for generic medicines by improving access to better healthcare through low treatment cost and easy availability wherever needed in all therapeutic categories.

 

What is a Generic Medicine?

Generic medicines are unbranded medicines which are equally safe and having the same efficacy as that of branded medicines in terms of their therapeutic value. The prices of generic medicines are much cheaper than their branded equivalent.

 

Outreach of generic medicines:

  • With developments like more and more doctors prescribing generic medicines and opening of over 5050 Janaushadhi stores across 652 districts, awareness and availability of high quality affordable generic medicines has increased in the country. About 10-15 lakh people benefit from Janaushadhi medicines per day and the market share of generic medicines has grown over three fold from 2% to 7%in last 3 years.
  • The Janaushadhi medicines have played a big role in bringing down the out of pocket expenditure of patients suffering from life threatening diseases in India. The PMBJP scheme has led to total savings of approximately Rs.1000 crores for common citizens, as these medicines are cheaper by 50% to 90% of average market price.
  • The PMBJP is also providing a good source of self-employment with self-sustainable and regular earnings.

 

Sources: pib.


GS Paper 2:

Topics covered:

  1. e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

 

National Digital Library of India

 

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: NMEICT and NDLI- key features and significance.

 

Context: Union Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) has launched National Digital Library of India project.

 

What is it? 

National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a project of the Ministry of Human Resource Developmentunder the aegis of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT).

It is developed by IIT Kharagpur.

Objective: The objective of NDL is to make digital educational resources available to all citizens of the country to empower, inspire and encourage learning.

 

Key facts:

  1. NDL is the Single Window Platform that collects and collates metadata from premier learning institutions in India and abroad, as well as other relevant sources.
  2. It is a digital repository containing textbooks, articles, videos, audio books, lectures, simulations, fiction and all other kinds of learning media.
  3. It makes quality learning resources available to all learners and has 1.7 Crore content from more than 160 sources, in over 200 languages.

 

About NMEICT:

  • The National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been envisaged as a Centrally Sponsored Schemeto leverage the potential of ICT, in teaching and learning process for the benefit of all the learners in Higher Education Institutions in any time anywhere mode.
  • The Mission has two major components – providing connectivity, along with provision for access devices, to institutions and learners; and content generation.

 

Aims:

  1. The Mission aims to extend computer infrastructure and connectivity to over 25000 colleges and 2000 polytechnics in the country including each of the departments of 419 universities/deemed universities and institutions of national importance as a part of its motto to provide connectivity up to last mile.
  2. LAN of up to 400 nodes on average has also been envisaged to be provided to the universities under the NMEICT scheme. The Mission, in addition to utilize the connectivity network of service providers, shall explore the possibility to provide connectivity utilizing Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), Virtual Private Network (VPN) and EduSat channels.

 

Sources: pib.


GS Paper 2:

Topics covered:

  1. Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

Eastern Economic Forum

 

What to study?

For Prelims: Geographical position and features of the Far East, About the forum and it’s genesis.

For Mains: need for and significance of India- Russia cooperation.

 

Context: PM Narendra Modi has been invited as the chief guest of the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok by Russian President Vladimir Putin on September 5.

 

About the Eastern Economic Forum:

The Eastern Economic Forum was established by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin in 2015.

In accordance with the Decree, the Eastern Economic Forum takes place each year in Vladivostok.

  • Every year, the Eastern Economic Forum serves as a platform for the discussion of key issues in the world economy, regional integration, and the development of new industrial and technological sectors, as well as of the global challenges facing Russia and other nations.
  • Events at the Forum traditionally take place in the form of panel sessions, roundtables, televised debates, business breakfasts, and business dialogues devoted to Russia’s relationships with various countries.
  • The Forum business programme includes a number of business dialogues with leading partner countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and with ASEAN, a key integration organization of dynamically developing nations in Southeast Asia

 

ABOUT THE FAR EAST:

The Far East is the easternmost part of Russia. The macro-region borders two oceans, the Pacific and the Arctic, and five countries (China, Japan, Mongolia, the United States and the DPRK).

The Far Eastern Federal District covers more than a third of the country’s territory.

RESOURCES: The Far East is rich in natural resources like diamonds, stannary, borax materials, 50 gold, tungsten, and fish and seafood. About 1/3 of all coal reserves and hydro-engineering resources of the country are here. Forests of the region comprise about 30% of the total forest area of Russia.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


 

GS Paper 3:

Topics covered:

  1. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

 

Rediscovering development banks

 

What to study?

For Prelims: What are development banks and how are they different from commercial banks?

For Mains: India’s experience with development banks, challenges faced by them and measures needed to boost their growth.

 

Context: In order to improve access to long-term finance, the government has proposed to establish an organisation to provide credit enhancement for infrastructure and housing projects, particularly in the context of India now not having a development bank and also for the need for us to have an institutional mechanism.

The announcement could have far-reaching implications for India’s financial system. It is a welcome initiative, but questions remain on its design.

 

What are development banks?

They are financial institutions that provide long-term credit for capital-intensive investments spread over a long period and yielding low rates of return, such as urban infrastructure, mining and heavy industry, and irrigation systems.

Development banks are also known as term-lending institutions or development finance institutions.

 

Features of development banks:

  1. Such banks often lend at low and stable rates of interest to promote long-term investments with considerable social benefits.
  2. Fund generation: To lend for long term, development banks require correspondingly long-term sources of finance, usually obtained by issuing long-dated securities in capital market, subscribed by long-term savings institutions such as pension and life insurance funds and post office deposits.
  3. Support by the government: Considering the social benefits of such investments, and uncertainties associated with them, development banks are often supported by governments or international institutions.
  4. Such support can be in the form of tax incentives and administrative mandates for private sector banks and financial institutions to invest in securities issued by development banks.

 

Genesis of development banks in India:

In the context of the Great Depression in the 1930s, John Maynard Keynes argued that when business confidence is low on account of an uncertain future with low-interest rates, the government can set up a National Investment Bank to mop up the society’s savings and make it available for long-term development by the private sector and local governments.

  • Following foregoing precepts, IFCI, previously the Industrial Finance Corporation of India, was set up in 1949. This was probably India’s first development bank for financing industrial investments.
  • In 1955, the World Bank prompted the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI)— the parent of the largest private commercial bank in India today, ICICI Bank — as a collaborative effort between the government with majority equity holding and India’s leading industrialists with nominal equity ownership to finance modern and relatively large private corporate enterprises.
  • In 1964, IDBI was set up as an apex body of all development finance institutions.

 

How were these banks financed initially?

As the domestic saving rate was low, and capital market was absent, development finance institutions were financed by:

  1. Lines of credit from the Reserve Bank of India (that is, some of its profits were channelled as long-term credit).
  2. Statutory Liquidity Ratio bonds, into which commercial banks had to invest a proportion of their deposits.

In other words, by sleight of government hand, short-term bank deposits got transformed into long-term resources for development banks. The missing capital market was made up by an administrative fiat.

 

Challenges faced by them:

  1. Development banks got discredited for mounting non-performing assets.
  2. This was mainly caused by politically motivated lending and inadequate professionalism in assessing investment projects for economic, technical and financial viability.
  3. After 1991, following the Narasimham Committee reports on financial sector reforms, development finance institutions were disbanded and got converted to commercial banks.
  4. The result was a steep fall in long-term credit from a tenure of 10-15 years to five years.

 

Way ahead:

Finance Minister’s agenda for setting up a development bank is welcome. However, a few hard questions need to be addressed in designing the proposed institution.

How will it be financed? If foreign private capital is expected to contribute equity capital (hence part ownership), such an option needs to be carefully analysed, especially in the current political juncture.

The design of the governance structure is fraught with dangers with many interest groups at work.

Therefore, the political and administrative leadership should carefully weigh in the past lessons to lay a firm foundation for the new institution.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 3:

Topics covered:

  1. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

 

SPG, NSG and other security forces — How India protects its VIPs

 

What to study?

For Prelims: Roles and features of various security forces.

For Mains: Need for and significance of these security forces.

 

Genesis of SPG:

  1. In March 1985, following the recommendations of a committee set up by the Home Ministry, a special unit was created for this purpose under the Cabinet Secretariat. This unit, initially called the Special Protection Unit, was renamed as Special Protection Group in April 1985.
  2. Subsequently, the Parliament passed The Special Protection Group (SPG) Act, which was notified in June 1988 “to provide for the constitution and regulation of an armed force of the Union for providing proximate security to the Prime Minister of India and for matters connected therewith”.
  3. The SPG Act defined “proximate security” as “protection provided from close quarters, during journey by road, rail, aircraft, watercraft or on foot or any other means of transport” and to “include the places of functions, engagements, residence or halt”.
  4. Coverage: SPG protection was extended, apart from the Prime Minister, to “former Prime Ministers of India and members of their immediate families” through an amendment in the Act in the aftermath of the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991.

 

Categories of security:

Besides the SPG, VIPs in India are protected by other security forces as well. The levels of security cover are determined by the threat perception around the individual.

  1. The highest level of security cover is the Z-plus category, followed by Z, Y, and X categories.
  2. The higher the level of cover, the larger the number of personnel protecting the individual.
  3. Roughly 24-36 personnel with automatic weapons are deployed for Z-plus category protectees and 16-20 personnel guard Z-category protectees.
  4. The elite ‘Black Cat’ commandos of the NSG are deployed to protect VIPs for whom the threat perception is the highest.

 

Sources: Indian Express.


Facts for Prelims:

 

Tarantula:

Context: Rare tarantula sighted in Villupuram district in the Pakkamalai Reserve Forests.

Key facts:

  • It is a critically endangered species.
  • The spider belonging to the genus Poecilotheria, commonly known as the Peacock Parachute Spider or Gooty Tarantula.
  • The species is known to be endemic to India.

Indonesia’s new capital:

  • The capital of Indonesia, which is Jakarta at present, will be relocated to the province of East Kalimantan on the lesser populated island of Borneo.
  • The relocation is meant to reduce the burden on Jakarta, which has been facing problems such as poor quality air, traffic gridlocks and is particularly prone to flooding.
  • It is also the largest Indonesian city with a population of 1 crore people and is located on the North West coast of the most populous island in the world, Java.

 

What is Buddha Nullah?

Originating at village Koom Kalan of Ludhiana and running for 47 kms till Walipur Kalan where it merges with River Sutlej, this stream carrying fresh water was earlier known as ‘Buddha Dariya’.

Over the years, the name got changed to Buddha Nullah (drain) owing to the sewage, industrial and domestic waste that is dumped into it.

 

Shaheen VIII:

Pakistan and China are conducting joint bilateral aerial exercise Shaheen VIII (Eagle VIII) in Chinese city of Holton.

Aim: It aims to develop mechanism for interoperability of both countries’ air forces. It is touted as means to enhance close relations between the all-weather allies.

 

C-DOT’s latest innovations:

ContextCentre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) has launched its latest innovations, “C-Sat-Fi (C-DOTSatellite WiFi”, “XGSPON (10 G Symmetrical Passive Optical Network)” and “C-DOT’s Interoperable Set-Top Box (CiSTB).

  1. C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi): It is based on the optimal utilization of wireless and satellite communication to extend connectivity to the unserved areas including the remote islands and difficult terrains. Besides offering the ease of deployment, the solution is ideally suited to addressing disasters and emergencies when no other means of communication are available. This cost-effective solution does not require expensive Satellite Phones and can work on any WiFi-enabled phone.
  2. C-DOT’s XGSPON (10 G Symmetrical Passive Optical Network): It will help in meeting the demands of applications like IPTV, HD Video Streaming, Online Gaming and host of other cloud-based services that necessitate the seamless availability of high bandwidth.
  3. C-DOT’s Interoperable Set-Top Box (CiSTB): This solution will revolutionize the experience of the Cable TV operators by offering them a high degree of choice, ease and convenience without having to replace the once installed STB.

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